Bash Reference Manual

Reference Documentation for Bash

Edition 4.4, for Bash Version 4.4.

September 2016

Chet Ramey, Case Western Reserve University
Brian Fox, Free Software Foundation

This text is a brief description of the features that are present in the Bash shell (version 4.4, 7 September 2016).

This is Edition 4.4, last updated 7 September 2016, of The GNU Bash Reference Manual, for Bash, Version 4.4.

Copyright © 1988–2016 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.


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Bash Features

This text is a brief description of the features that are present in the Bash shell (version 4.4, 7 September 2016). The Bash home page is http://www.gnu.org/software/bash/.

This is Edition 4.4, last updated 7 September 2016, of The GNU Bash Reference Manual, for Bash, Version 4.4.

Bash contains features that appear in other popular shells, and some features that only appear in Bash. Some of the shells that Bash has borrowed concepts from are the Bourne Shell (‘sh’), the Korn Shell (‘ksh’), and the C-shell (‘csh’ and its successor, ‘tcsh’). The following menu breaks the features up into categories, noting which features were inspired by other shells and which are specific to Bash.

This manual is meant as a brief introduction to features found in Bash. The Bash manual page should be used as the definitive reference on shell behavior.


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