Labor Market Information Systems
Footnotes

by Sean Dreilinger, Bob King & Shelly Tomlinson


Created: Monday, June 07, 1993 8:51:00 PM, for a course in
Information Resources for Business at the
UCLA Graduate School of Library & Information Science


TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION

We have been asked to locate Labor Market Information Systems (LMIS) currently in use and report on the requirements for such systems and commonalties between them. This paper summarizes our efforts to date. The task force began with knowledge of two such systems - SALMIS (Texas) and NOMIS (U.K.), which constituted the starting point of our research. We also located a prototype, "model" system in Los Angeles, an Australian system, and have read and summarized reports of systems in Michigan, Washington, Colorado, and Wisconsin. In addition to these large, multi-purpose systems, we found several smaller "Job Placement Systems", which use computer technology to match employers and job seekers, but do not provide complete labor market information. Some of these are operated by commercial ventures, some by federal and state agencies.

We were also asked to look into Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and determine if/how they can be integrated with LMIS's. The literature on GIS is more complete and current than what we able to find on LMIS. There was some significant overlap and interrelation between the two system types, and it is possible to see how they can be linked together.

NEED

The need for automated labor market information systems has come about for a number of reasons, both economic and technological. Economically, the country is in decline. There have been numerous events leading to a weak economy, plant closings and layoffs resulting from "downsizing", "rightsizing" , "restructuring" and other euphemisms for "displacing" (firing) thousands of workers. Hence, there is a need to have efficient and effective systems to match employers with job seekers, as well as establishing a single system that supports and allows for forecasts (economic, employment, job training/education, etc.) to be made using data available in that system. Technologically, the hardware and software capabilities exist to make such a system both possible and feasible. Given current economic conditions, it makes good sense to invest some short-term capital into projects with great long-term potential benefits for employers, employees/job seekers and the country as a whole. The need for these systems resides in the country as a whole, at all levels, and for virtually all people although those who might benefit from it may not know it yet. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a powerful, flexible and networkable system in order to ensure California's long-term economic competitiveness.

LABOR MARKET INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Going back at least to the early 1970's, there have been computerized employment systems under development and in use. These are found under a variety of names - `labor market information systems,' `job banks,' `manpower information systems,' `economic development databases,' and numerous other manifestations. One thing this suggests is that the field and these systems have evolved independent of one another, without the benefit of formal or informal channels of communication to share progress and developments with others who share their interests and/or mandates for service. This seems to be the rule rather than the exception, as evidenced in a recent interview between Team LMIS member Robert King and Curtiss Johnson, director of the Los Angeles Private Industry Council, who had not heard of any other integrated online labor market information systems, when in fact there have been several in operation over the past twenty years or so, some of which were developed or subsidized by Private Industry Councils in other cities.

Another problem of having so many different names for similar systems is that it is difficult to determine with any degree of confidence that you have made a comprehensive discovery of all of the systems that might be or have ever been in existence in the United States, let alone the rest of the world. As any librarian could tell you, the lack of a controlled vocabulary will always result in missing items. Nonetheless, we were able to find a number of systems that are currently being used in the United States and in other parts of the world. Some systems, such as Great Britain's NOMIS,[1] are Geographical Information Systems (GIS's), which seek to combine spatial data with economic and labor data to meet the needs of Industries looking at economic trends and forecasts to base expansion plans on, companies looking for qualified job candidates, and individuals looking for jobs or training that fit their qualifications or career goals. Other systems, such as the San Antonio Labor Market Information System (SALMIS) are database systems that seek to match employers and prospective employees by standardized coding of job descriptions and applicant qualifications. There are microcomputer-based systems that link different types of off-the-shelf software (databases, spreadsheets, etc.) in order to provide a flexible, low-cost multiple-capability system that can be easily modified and expanded. One of the big selling points of such a system is that hardware and software costs are minimal and powerful systems can be easily implemented in other cities.

Lastly, there are GIS systems discussed in the literature as systems that are addressing the possibility of linking GIS's with other, non-spatial databases in order to provide more powerful and sophisticated tools to manipulate data, make projections and forecasts and produce graphical representations of labor, employment and economic data that can be used in planning of new business ventures, determining the current supply and demand of/for labor and forecasting future labor needs to help government programs such as CETA, JTPA and WARN provide appropriate training and retraining programs for dislocated or "barriered" workers. There is also interest in having centralized systems that are able to handle a variety of functions. Several urban GIS's serve the needs of different city departments, providing property parcel map information for the tax assessor, route planning for sanitation departments, facilities mapping for public utilities and public works, and map overlay capabilities of combining different types of data to produce specialized maps for any number of purposes. By having a centralized system that management, labor, and intermediary agencies can refer to in the planning of new business starts/expansions and training programs to provide these businesses with qualified employees; much of the guesswork and decisional happenstance can be avoided in favor of decisions based on hard data available to everyone in a given area.

EMPLOYMENT CLASSIFICATIONS

Within the Labor Market Information Systems we have examined and profiled there are several ways in which employment information is classified. The three main categories are:

employment in terms of geographic arrangements

employment by industrial classifications

employment by occupational category.

In order to understand employment data presented in each of these areas one must first become familiar with each of these types of classification systems.

The designation often used by analysts for geographic locations is the labor market area (LMA). The reasoning for this type of classification is based on the relationship between the area of residency and the particular places of work of the labor force.[2] Not all labor area markets cover the same amount of territory and for the most part, these geographic patterns are based on the established commuting habits rather than actual distances. In accessing information regarding geography the main consideration is the ability of the labor market to accept new jobs without changing residences or lengthening commuting distances.

The boundaries of the majority of large labor market areas coincide with those of the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA's) as determined by the Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards. An individual SMSA will always include a city (or cities) of a identified population, which makes up the central city, and the county in which it is located. A large majority of the information collected on employment population and income of urban areas are based on SMSA's.[3] Data can also be gathered by political jurisdiction in terms of the state, the county and the city. Both the LMA and SMSA are established on concepts of the economic activity of a particular area and are used for data analysis in planning.

Employment can also be classified by industrial category. Industrial employment is placed into groups according to the type of activity or good(s) each industry produces. These activities or goods are designated by the use of a government-devised system of numeric codes, called the Standard Industrial Classification system (SIC).[4] It is a coding system designed for collection and formulation of data by industry for the purposes of promoting comparability and uniformity of statistics. It is intended to cover the entire field of economic activity and used to show growing or emerging industries. The goal is to keep pace with these expanding industries, maintain consistency and indicate disappearing industries.

Industries are first classed by their primary economic activity and then are categorized by specific levels of industrial detail based on a hierarchical system. Industries are broadly classed in major divisions such as "construction" or "retail trade." These divisions are then subdivided into 99 two-digit major groups; further subdivided into three-digit individual groups; and individual groups into four-digit industry codes.[5] In this manner the SIC codes allow economic analysis of broad categories or very specific levels of industrial classification.

The analysis of occupational structure of jobs is also taken into consideration. Occupational characteristics and trends are of particular interest to manpower planners, and business and labor officials because it is their job to be aware of directions in which the labor market is moving. There are in existence and use several systems of classification (which does create obstacles), each with its own major occupation groups and numerical coding systems.[6] One in particular is the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). DOT provides specific information about approximately 22,000 occupations, including but not limited to main and alternate occupation titles, and specific tasks and duties. The information is organized into a nine-digit numerical coding system with listings both in numerical order and alphabetical order. The assumption on which DOT is based is that work is organized in different but identifiable ways and each job is performed slightly differently from any other.

Several other types of occupational classification systems include those employed by the Bureau of the Census, the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, the system used by the United States Office of Education (USOE), and the system developed by the Office of Management and Budget called the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC).[7] The Bureau of the Census developed its system for the collection of its 1970 decennial report on the occupational structure of the country. This system is much less detailed than DOT because its main purpose is data collection as opposed to a job-defining scheme.

The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program is the principal source of data on occupational employment and forecasts of future occupational demand. There are two sets of data (one based on the 1970 Census and one based on OES survey data), thus leading to two coding structures, both using an eight-digit code. The Census data covers 400 occupational categories, whereas the OES survey data covers over 1,700 occupations.

The United States Office of Education (USOE) employs an occupational classification system which is intended to assist local and state vocation-technical education agencies in identifying and classifying information about subject matter in terms of occupational training. The system provides a distinct identity for each educational program area and is divided into a hierarchy of two-digit blocks of data. Because of these various coding systems, an attempt to standardize them into one single, comprehensive classification tool was made by the Office of Management and Budget.[8] What was achieved was the Standard Occupational Classification system (SOC). The system groups occupations into homogenous and related categories based on similarity of work performed. The structure focuses on occupations and people who perform them as opposed to the industries and their products. It is based on a four level system: division, major group, minor group and unit group. SOC contains a listing of all DOT occupational titles and selected titles from the 1970 Census.

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Whereas LMIS's seemed to enjoy a certain vogue in the 1970's and early 80's, GISs have been rapidly evolving in recent years to become one of the main focus areas of researchers and developers affiliated with the Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA). One amusing view of what GIS may one day make possible is found in the preface of William Huxhold's book An Introduction to Urban Geographic Information Systems (1991), taken from an NPR (National Public Radio) story. "It will be possible one day to generate a map of all grazing lands in the U.S. with deposits of uranium owned by people named Fred or Martha that are also located near a bus stop."[9] Realistically, these are powerful and sophisticated tools to manipulate data that overlay different data-types (spatial/mapping, non-spatial, statistical, individual item information) onto one map or other representation.

Much of the literature speaks about GIS development taking all phases of government planning into account and creating a decision-support mechanism that allows people to integrate these different types of data quickly and easily in order to generate projections and forecasts based on "what if" scenarios and produce graphical representations of labor, employment and economic data that can be used in planning of new business ventures, determining the current supply and demand of/for labor and forecasting future labor needs to help government programs such as CETA, JTPA and WARN provide appropriate training and retraining programs for dislocated or "barriered" workers. There is also interest in having centralized systems that are able to handle a variety of functions. Urban GISs currently in existence serve the needs of different city departments, providing property parcel map information for the tax assessor, route planning for sanitation departments, facilities mapping for public utilities and public works, and map overlay capabilities of combining different types of data to produce specialized maps for any number of purposes. By adding labor market information to these centralized systems, management, labor and intermediary agencies can refer to it in planning of new business starts/expansions and training programs to provide these businesses with qualified employees, much of the guesswork and decisional happenstance can be avoided in favor of decisions based on hard data available to everyone in a given area.

SALMIS

SALMIS is one of the earliest comprehensive labor market information systems in existence. It is still in operation in San Antonio Texas, where it was developed by the Institute for Studies in Business at the University of Texas, San Antonio for the Alamo Private Industry Commission. It is summarized below according to the criteria specified by the state task force.

How does SALMIS establish a reliable guide of the true employment and unemployment picture?

Employment:

The SALMIS derives its basic employment demand data from a current employment survey, which in turn is benchmarked against a report of employment and wages mandated by federal and state government. This data reportedly represents 97% of the working population, but being based on a two digit SIC classification, it doesn't present an altogether accurate or specific estimate. The compromise is a result of time, human and cost restraints.

Unemployment:

Information is obtained from the Texas Employment Commission's Employment Service Automated Reporting System (ESARS). This means that they capture only individuals who have registered with the state service/system.

How does it deal with labor shortages?

It doesn't, specifically. It does provide employers and potential employers the opportunity to see how many people are enrolled in educational/training programs and thus forecast the feasibility of expanding their business in the area based on having a qualified and available pool of labor.

How does it deal with labor surpluses?

The system gets labor surplus/supply data from five sources other than ESARS, mostly educational institutions (secondary & post-secondary), proprietary schools, rehabilitation programs and Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) programs. This data provides estimates of labor supply for vocational/technical (vo-tech) jobs in the San Antonio area.

How does it deal with characteristics of job seekers' qualifications?

It codes the jobs available in the labor market for the San Antonio SMSA using Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) codes in combination with Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) coding, and uses a case worker/manager to match job seekers with potential employers. If the applicants don't have the requisite skills, the counselor can point them to programs that will train them for the position.

How does it deal with characteristics of job profiles/descriptions?

It codes them using a blended coding system that combines both DOT codes and the OES survey coding systems. This is a method to produce a systematic matching the skills of one position to those of alternate occupations using an analysis of specific characteristics for each occupation. The method relies to a great (or at least some) degree on intellectual (re: human) effort on the parts of both the coder and the job planner/developer in matching prospective employers and applicants.

How does it deal with characteristics of job appointees?

It is assumed that this question refers to positions not currently open, but that are coded according to the above-referenced question by OES and DOT codes). See above.

How does it deal with characteristics of ideal job profiles

We offer an operational definition of "Ideal job profile" as the answer. Ideal Job Profile is a position that is open and one that is easily classifiable using the harmonized OES/DOT coding scheme.

How does SALMIS deal with relationships between all of these profiles?

It requires some sort of reconciliation between job profiles and job seeker qualifications, which are cross-referenced using an analysis in the National Occupation Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC) Master Crosswalk tape file, but are still fairly dependent upon human interaction with the system in order to make accurate and good matches.

how does it deal with occupational classification systems? - which does it use and why?

It uses both the OES system and DOT classifications. The merger of these two provides a wider spectrum of possible matches between job seekers and employers.

For more information on SALMIS, see the article The San Antonio Labor Market Information System: Design, Development and Implementation by Dr. Lynda Y. de la Vina and Mr. John Romanek, two of the principle developers of the system. Alternately, you may call the Institute for Studies in Business at (512) 691-4317.

NOMIS

Great Britain's National Online Manpower Information System originated in 1978 as part of a project between the Manpower Services Administration and the University at Durham. The system originally held only unemployment statistics, and has since evolved into a complex Geographic Information System with 20 gigabytes of information covering four major data domains:

Unemployment-- archived since 1981

Vacancies-- job opportunities

Demographics-- increasingly detailed since 1989

Employment-- Census of Employment

Who Uses NOMIS?[10]

Since 1986, NOMIS has been available to almost any academic, government, or business user group who can pay the bill. The central government is currently the heaviest user of the system, which logs well over 35,000 sessions per year.

NOMIS learns of job vacancies from the Employment Service's Job Centre network. "Research indicates that these cover approximately one third of all vacancies in the economy, although that proportion will vary by industry occupation and location."[11] One-third of all job openings in an area with the population of Great Britain is no small accomplishment! NOMIS collects other information from a variety of Labor Market Informants, including: the Department of Employment's JUVOS System, the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, the Department of Economic Development (Northern Ireland), and the Scotland and Welsh branches of the General Register Office.

Although NOMIS contains detailed information on job opportunities, users with access to this information are legally prohibited from disclosing the individual companies or businesses with job vacancies. The intended application of the system is to allow users to obtain the latest Labor Market information, tailored to their needs, calculated using the most complete and accurate data available, and output in the user's preferred graphic or tabular display. Because much of the data and software capability for a full-blown LMIS are already contained in the present implementation of NOMIS, it appears that offering an job placement feature is simply a matter of user demand.

Unfortunately, job-placement features are not on the schedule of improvements for the system. NOMIS is in the process of rewriting their software in C language, and porting the whole package to a yet-undetermined UNIX-based operating system. They are trying to standardize the software that users dial or log onto NOMIS with. A partial distribution on CD-ROM is also being considered.[12] NOMIS offers academic accounts at reduced rates, where only online time, CPU time, and minimal printing fees are charged. If you would like to try NOMIS, it appears possible to telnet into the JANET (Joint Academic NETwork) from GSLIS and login. NOMIS accounts can be opened for about [[sterling]]50, plus some sort of Value Added Tax. The person to contact is:

Miss E. Westwood:

Department of Employment
Statistics Branch D4Exchange House
60 Exchange House Road
Watford, Hertfordshire
WD1 7HH

JOB BANK AND JOB SEEKER

The Labor Market Information Systems, Job Bank and Job Seeker, are designed and operated by the Commonwealth Employment Service (CES) of Australia. Both systems are used to collect and provide information for those seeking employment. Previous to a discussion concerning each of these interrelated systems, however, some historical background on the CES is needed.

CES is Australia's national public employment exchange service, established in 1946 at the end of World War II. It was set up in response to the need to coordinate and re-employ those who had been engaged in war work or returned servicemen. It undertook to provide an employment service which:

was free of charge;

was adequately financed;

included special arrangements for the placement of disadvantaged job seekers, and

collected, analyzed and made available to other public authorities and the general public information on the functioning of the labor market.[13]

The service grew during the 1950's and 1960's, but began experiencing difficulties in the early 1970's. It was at this point (because of increasing demands on CES's resources) that the introduction of a computerized vacancy distribution system (to be called Job Bank) was adopted. Other reforms of the system included restructuring of the Job Centres to include three levels of service and active marketing of the CES services to both employers and job seekers (as opposed to the previous service of provisions only for job seekers.) The top priority remained the dissemination of occupational information to the general public.

The network of Job Centres is the means of placement and other specialist services in Australia. These are local branches that are established and it is through these centers that the Job Bank system operates. Job Bank was instituted because of the need to streamline the information used by CES. CES uses a variety of records for its operations, including details about job seekers, vacancies, employers, labor force trainees, etc. Statistics and labor market reports collected and produced by the Job Centres (based on employment transactions occurring within the centers) had the disadvantage of imposing considerable collection/consolidation workloads on staff.[14] The previous systems for storing, accessing and updating all of this information were manual and it became obvious that a more adequate system for management of CES and its programs was necessary.

The implementation of Job Bank provided the CES with its own mainframe computer in order to perform the previously stated activities with speed and efficiency. Since the main placement activities of the CES are 1) self-service, 2) job seeker-based matching, and 3) vacancy-based matching, the successful delivery of these services depended on a system which could easily accommodate these functions throughout the network of Job Centres.

The equipment of the system consists of a FACOM M200 mainframe computer combined with FACOM mass storage sub-systems (disc drives and tape drives), two front-end processors and two high-speed line printers.[15] All of this equipment is located in the national office of the CES in Melbourne and linked to the CES Job Centres around Australia.

The Job Bank system (as a means of improving CES job placement activities) has the following objectives:

to improve the distribution of job vacancies between Job Centres by ensuring that current vacancy information is immediately available;

to improve the accuracy and currency of job vacancy information by automating routine clerical operations;

to support job-search activities by providing a means of showing vacancies for self-selection (self-service) by job-seekers and a vacancy listing medium; and

to provide management information.[16]

The Job Bank operates in several ways. The first involves the employer contacting the CES with a vacancy. The system is checked to determine if the employer is known to the system in order to avoid duplication and to establish the intrinsic relationship between a vacancy and the employer. Once the employer record is established the vacancy is keyed in and a system-generated vacancy is assigned. In this way a vacancy is available to all system users. Interviewing officers and job seekers are able to search the bank of vacancies in the Job Bank and select suitable jobs. Referrals and other details to the vacancy are keyed in by the interviewing officer and once an employer has selected a job seeker, the placement is recorded in the system and the vacancy is no longer actively available on the system.

The self-service feature of the Job Bank system works in the following manner: the applicant selects a vacancy and makes an inquiry; the Job Centre requests vacancy details, a vacancy is displayed, referral details are requested, those requests are displayed and finally, the vacancy in the system is updated if the job is filled. The vacancy and employer information in the system forms the basis of statistical information gathering on the labor market and eliminates the need for the use of manual resources for this task.

The Job Bank system provides many functions and facilities but the main ones are the following:

computerization of employer records;

the linking of the vacancy and employer records;

automatic distribution of vacancies;

cancellations and amendments to vacancies, and

entering of transactions on vacancies by any Job Centre.[17]

Following the development of the Job Bank system came the realization that there was a need to automate the job-seeker record. With this realization came the implementation of Job Seeker, a system developed to run on microcomputers in each Job Centre. The prime objectives of the Job Seeker system are to:

improve the quality and efficiency of the CES's services to its clients by providing:

a) improved access to information on job seekers, allowing improved targeting of labor force programs and services aimed at the varying needs of job seekers;

b) improved matching of job seekers to vacancies; and

provide advice to government.

The Job Seeker system operates by first registering a job seeker at a Job Centre. Whether it is a first time registrant or one who is updating information, all pertinent information is keyed into the system. Such information that may be keyed into the system includes the office where the person registers, name, title, date of birth, sex, address, occupational codes, country of birth, phone number, registration date, last contact date, primary and secondary skills and school leave date. Should a job seeker be referred to a vacancy, basic details of the referral will also be keyed in.

The two systems (Job Bank and Job Seeker) can be used in conjunction with one another in order to fill vacancies. In the absence of a job seeker, an officer at the CES may select from the Job Bank system a number of vacancies and search the Job Seeker system files to obtain a list of appropriate referral candidates. The Job Seeker system allows the matching officer to key in the specific requirements, such as skills required, and to then search the Job Seeker database for person that meet the selection criteria. The Job Seeker system also allows for the updating of information regarding changes in the labor market to be distributed to the job seeker. The system enables rapid identification of job seekers and releases resources formally used for manual statistical recording in order to concentrate on filling vacancies with suitable job seekers.[18]

Both systems, Job Bank and Job Seeker, have had a profound effect on the efficiency of the CES. They have allowed the CES to perform its main function of dissemination of occupational information to the public.

THE LOS ANGELES PRIVATE INDUSTRY COUNCIL'S MODEL

This Model System designed and currently running on a test basis by the Los Angeles Private Industry Council is a very promising system. It runs off-the-shelf, commercially available software on standard IBM-compatible computers. These software work together to produce flexible reports and forecasts for a minimum capital investment. It is not as powerful as a GIS, but it does provide the possibility for making accurate assessments and forecasts of the Los Angeles area's labor market. In fact, if implemented as planned, it will provide by far the most accurate data of any system, based on reports of each company as to how many and what types of positions exist and/or are available. Given the traditional reluctance of industry to divulge any type of information that might diminish their competitive advantage, this may be a difficult task, but it's worth considering.

The Model System also contains provisions for providing information on investment capital, computerized sales and marketing for participating businesses and other services that could be developed to serve the economic development needs of the community. As a note of interest, the Los Angeles Private Industry Council operates as an arm of the city of Los Angeles's Community Development Department. It is concerned not only with matching employers with candidates, but also developing the area's economy. Mr. Johnson is a dynamic individual with many ideas for accomplishing a wide range of goals related to this mission. We recommend contacting him as a source of ideas and information. This might also be the first link in establishing a formal communication network between developers and potential developers of LMIS's. A brief summary of the system according to task force guidelines follows below.

DISCUSSION WITH THE SYSTEM DEVELOPER

The conversation that follows is a summary of an interview with Curtiss Johnson, project leader/developer of the Los Angeles Private Industry Council's Model LMIS.[19]

How does the system deal with discrepancies between job descriptions, DOT codes, and job-seeker qualifications?

The employer's job description is assigned a DOT code by the PIC staff coder, who in turn asks the employer for feedback as to the accuracy of the match. This allows for modifications to be made to the mutual satisfaction of both parties.

The coding of the job seeker's qualifications is a bit trickier, and is, according to Curtiss Johnson, the Model System's weak link. He proposes to address this problem by having experienced Job Developers/Case Managers help "fit" properly qualified job seekers with employers. It is also possible to list multiple DOT codes for each applicant, as appropriate.

between qualifications/skills and transferability of those qualifications/skills to other positions...

Again, he proposes human/intellectual efforts to match job seekers to positions for which they may be peripherally qualified. But the software that they are using for the job matching component of the system also allows for varying degrees of qualification. The range consists of four levels: Primary, Secondary, Composite and Extended. `Primary' refers to an exact match of DOT codes between employer and seeker. `Secondary' begins to look for closely related and/or transferable skills, possibly in the same area. `Composite' is broader still and looks for similar fields of work, and provides some specialized training, either from Service Area Providers (JTPA funded) or from subsidized training programs in employer companies. At the broadest level, the `Extended' category offers more extensive training and requires the fewest and least specific/specialized qualifications.

between qualifications/experience and a job seeker's desire for a career change...

This again is primarily the province of the Case Manager interacting with the system to show the job seeker all of the jobs that currently exist that meet his or her criteria and/or areas of potential interest. The software does allow for searching and display of positions by a number of criteria - salary, qualifications, etc.

Do you use professional indexers to reconcile these discrepancies?

No. Coding is performed by experienced but not highly trained staff. There is room for coding errors and inter-coder inconsistency. There are no professional librarians or indexers on the staff, only what Dan Dabney would call "bright BAs".

You use the DOT codes in the system, how did you come to decide on the DOT codes?

DOT codes were selected by surveying staff at the L.A. Community Development Department, the California Employment Development Division and because it has been widely used over a long span of time. Mr. Johnson stated that the strengths and weakness of the code are well-known and attempts can be made to compensate for them. This was one of the things he mentioned as a factor in the use of experienced Case Managers. It is his feeling that there is a lack of respect and qualifications for many Case Managers, which leads to work (and placements) that are not all that they could be. His recommendation is to hire older workers who have been displaced, are retired or near retirement and are experienced in the particular segment of the labor market that they will be counseling in. In this way, they can utilize their experience in communicating with (potential) employers from a base of knowledge that has an insider's perspective, and can share that knowledge with job seekers, providing them with insights and somewhat of a mentor relationship. In addition, the salary of the Case Manager should be tied to placement performance - the higher the placement rate, the higher their salary.

Did you consider other classification schemes, such as:

U.S. Office of Education (USOE)

Occupation Employment Statistics program's system

Bureau of Census

OMB's Standard Occupational Classification System (an attempt to standardize all of the above-mentioned systems).

No. The approach to the project was not that of an academic doing deep preliminary research, considering all of the available options and making a long-considered decision. The impression I got was more of people being brought in to do a job, using their prior skills, knowledge and acumen to build a more ambitious project than originally envisioned and to bring the project together using already existing technology to ensure that the same type of system can be easily brought up in other locations with a minimum of capital and time invested. Indeed, compared with the SALMIS, which required hundreds of different original programs to be written according to specification, L.A.'s Model System is entirely off the shelf software that can be easily modified to meet specific needs. The heart of the system is the most customized component, and the software developer is working closely with the L.A. PIC to meet their needs. This will serve him in the long run if the system is successful, because it would likely be implemented in many other cities nationwide.

This sounds like an exact match system, have you considered the use of partial match systems, or are they impractical at this time?

(Mr. Johnson was not aware of partial match or probabilistic systems.)

What other systems are you aware of, if any? We are trying to survey what's currently available, what's under development and in what direction these systems are heading.

None. (He had not heard of any other similar systems. He has a tremendous gift of gab and a definite visionary perspective of all of the possibilities of the Model System, but is short on research into the project. It was interesting to learn that there doesn't seem to be a great deal of formal communication between the PIC's of different cities, at least as far as Mr. Johnson knew about.)

Will the Model System incorporate or allow for the combination of data with Geographical Information Systems?

Conceivably, yes, although there are no current plans to integrate such systems, they could be added at some point in the future. The goal is to code whole companies - every position from top to bottom would be DOT classified. This would provide an accurate picture of the labor market in any given SMSA based on "hard" data directly reported by companies, as opposed to statistical samples as are currently employed in the State's Labor Market Information Division. The system would also provide information as to the requisite amount and type of training and experience required for a position, which would help service providers train job seekers with specifically targeted programs.

The model program is initially focusing on Title 3 job seekers - workers who have been dislocated by layoffs or plant closings. Indeed, under the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act, plant managers are required to give the government and affected workers at least 3 (6?) months advance notice prior to plant closings and job terminations. The government then provides retraining to interested job seekers. A main benefit of the Model Program is that it collects all of the job seeker and job provider information in one easily cross-checked database, which is very accurate and provides real-time access to the information for all parties. Once the system is up, running and has demonstrated success, it is entirely conceivable that it could load job seeker information from the State's EDD database. This data would still need to be coded, but it would provide the critical mass of job seekers necessary to fill positions with very specific requirements.

SOFTWARE USED FOR THE MODEL SYSTEM:

It is emphasized that all software (except OASYS, which the developer has been modifying especially for the Model System) is off-the-shelf, commercially available software that can be easily modified. Mr. Johnson felt this is one of the system's strong points, allowing for an inexpensive implementation and maximum flexibility.

OASYS, Vertec Corporation - Main match system database software

ACCESS, Microsoft database software. Currently used in Case Manager files. Integrates applicant's skills/qualifications with a digital photograph to help remind case manager who his or her clients are.

PARADOX, FOX BASE+ or other database software

EXCEL, or other spreadsheet software

All software is commercially available. It must be easily modifiable to meet the needs of the Model System and subsequent systems based on it.

OVERALL IMPRESSIONS:

My impression of the system is that it has been put together by an entrepreneur who knows what he wants to do and products and technology that will allow him to do it. His vision is quite broad and encompassing. His spiel is persuasive and interesting. He foresees a revolutionary system that will grow the economy and provide data and feedback that will shape policy to meet the needs and demands of the labor market in the future. By increasing the availability of information speeding its transfer, employers will grow faster, employing more workers who will spend more money and in turn create more growth and employment opportunities. In short, it will facilitate the free market system. One of the eventual elements is to provide an online network of sources of start-up or investment capital to put idea people in touch with money people and to realize the potential of business propositions.

JOB PLACEMENT SERVICES

In addition to examining systems that claimed to be or appeared to be full-featured labor market information systems, the LMIS Research Team looked into a number of employment services which offered partial functionality of an LMIS. Some of these systems were more advanced or were subject to more `real world' use than the LMIS's we examined for this report. Job Placement Services offer ideas and lessons for the development of LMIS's. The broad category of placement services can include:

Executive Search Firms

University Alumni Groups

Employment Agencies

Public Job Banks

Corporate Job Banks[20]

as well as:

Electronic Bulletin Boards and Newsgroups

Distributed Databases (GSLIS Profiles).

It is known that a majority of private employment agencies are already involved in various forms of networking.[21] This shows a clear need for today's employment services to extend across and beyond their previous limitations of location and slow-updating. Larger corporations are purchasing `resume databases' and doing away with `headhunters,' individuals who could charge as much as one-third of a new executive's first-year salary for locating the right person to fill one key job. These resume databases can come packaged with commercial software, such as Lotus Notes, or be purchased from custom software developers for as much as $150,000.[22] Even small business can search for employees from a number of online resume databases, including those available on CompuServe and DIALOG's file 162 (Career Placement Registry).[23]

People with Internet access may post help wanted ads, resumes, and labor market questions to several UseNet News groups with titles like "alt.jobs.offered." Some groups have more specific focus, such as computer-science jobs or geographic information systems jobs. People with computers and modems may also access a number of `home-made' dialup bulletin boards, many of which feature local employment listings as well as nationally `echoed' job offers. Many employment agencies, including branches of the U.S. Government, use fax machines to create a sort of pseudo-LMIS between friendly agencies.

Finally, employers may receive software resume-bases, or disk-based advertising for an applicant or group of applicants. One example of this is the GSLIS Student Profiles, produced by John Houser at UCLA's Graduate School of Library and Information Science. Packages such as this include a database of talented applicants, as well as a software front-end to thoroughly search the applicant pool.

Although the speed and/or effectiveness with which some of these JPS's operate is promising for the future of Integrated Labor Market Information Systems, the JPS's have many problems in common. The free-text-based search systems produce a number of amusing false drops. For example, an employer searching for programmers who can write software in `C' language may be surprised to come across all of the applicants who clearly stated `I can program well in every language except C.' While traditional resume writers have relied upon fancy verbs to call attention to their skills, the online applicant might adopt a scheme based on nouns- stating everything they can not do but would like to be able to-- ensuring that the computer will `see' an outstanding candidate.

Like LMIS's, most Job Placement systems have been independently developed, and each employs its own job codes, record format, and user interface. The fact that most JPS's operate in different ways- even among government funded efforts- suggests that standards for computerized employment profiles and systems are necessary before more taxpayer money is spent on small local systems with no hope future expansion.

CONCLUSION

It is the conclusion of this Research Team that a standardized, networked Labor Market Information System could play a key role in the economic recovery of both the State of California and the Nation. If Vice President Gore's proposed NREN national network is constructed as planned, it will provide the ideal vehicle for just such an employment system, possibly integrated with an even more impressive Geographical Information System.

Current LMIS's are severely limited by a lack of communication among their developers, and consequently, a lack of standards which prevents local systems from interfacing. The LMIS Research Team recommends that the State of California take two steps toward the construction of a state-wide or national LMIS:

Publish an LMIS newsletter, which will call for input from all known LMIS operators and developers, as well as distinguished professionals and educators in the fields of Library and Information Science, Geography, Economics, and Computer Science.

Fund a committee who will create (or adopt) a technical standard that will allow new LMIS's to interconnect, and possibly provide for their integration with existing GIS and LMIS systems.

We hope you will find the attached Glossary and Annotated Bibliography useful for further research. We have also enclosed three 1.44 MB IBM floppy disks. One disk contains this document in electronic form- MS Word For Windows Version 2.0.b. A second disk contains a MS Power Point presentation of this paper compressed with PKZIP 2.0.g compression. It requires Microsoft Windows 3.1, the Power Point Viewer, and PkUnzip 2.0 for use. The third disk contains a copy of Curtiss Johnson's P.I.C. LMIS presentation. to view this, insert the disk and type "SHOW LA" at the DOS prompt.

GLOSSARY

BLS
Bureau of Labor Statistics (federal)
CDD
Community Development Department (city of Angels)
DOT
Dictionary of Occupation Titles
EDD
Employment Development Department (state of California)
EEO
Equal Employment Opportunity
Geocoding
The process of assigning geocodes to data describing entities that can be located on a map. Common geocodes include addresses, census tracts and political and administrative districts.
GSLIS
Graduate School of Library and Information Science, rare and endangered species!
JANET
Joint Academic Network
JTPA
Jobs Training Partnership Act
LAN
Local Area Network
LMA
Labor Market Area
LMIS
Labor Market Information System
NOICC
National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee
NOMIS
National Online Manpower Information System
OES
Occupational Employment Statistics
PIC
Private Industry Council
PMIS
placement/management information system
SALMIS
San Antonio Labor Market Information System
SIC
Standard Industrial Classification (code)
SMSA
State Metropolitan Statistical Area
SVP
Specific Vocational Preparation
TEC
Texas Employment Commission
VPO
Vocational Preparation Occupations
WAN
Wide Area Network
WARN
Worker Adjustment Retraining Notification Act

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

"Computerisation of Labor Market Information." Proceedings of ILO/ARPLA Inter-country Symposium on Labour Market Information Functions of Labour Administration. Denpasar (Bali), Indonesia, August 1986.

This small paperback volume puts together the technical papers on the computerization of Labor Market Information (LMI) presented at the symposium in the Republic of Indonesia in August 1986. It is to be used as a handy reference to those responsible for planning and managing the shift to a new system as well as those interested in the more technical aspects of computer-based information systems. Two systems are given consideration: MACBETH in Ecuador and the Job Bank and the Job Seeker in Australia. The information concerning MACBETH presents the possibilities for using low-cost microcomputers for LMI data processing. The author of the paper demonstrates two approaches to computerization when cost is the major factor, 1) the conventional approach and 2) the incremental approach. Considerable attention is given to the system in Australia, including background information on the application of computers to the Commonwealth Employment Service (CES), the structure of CES, the implementation of the Job Bank system (equipment, objectives, operations, functions), and the use of the Job Seeker system (strategy behind it, implementation, objectives, operations design). The author of the paper includes advantages and disadvantages to these types of systems.

"Downloading Dilemmas." American Demographics 8(Nov. 1986):11 8.

An article detailing the marketing of government data by and to commercial services.

"State and Local Systems: the State of the Art." Urban and Regional Information Association (URISA) . March, 1985.

A description of twenty-two systems submitted as part of the 1984 Exemplary Systems in Government Awards Program conducted by the Urban and Regional Information Association. Only two articles contained therein are really applicable to the task force's objectives. These are described below.

1991 URISA Proceedings, vol.5

abstracts only - full text not available

Anthes, Gary H. "Uncle Sam Uses Network and Fax to Fill Jobs." ComputerWorld. December 2, 1991 57.

The U.S. Office of personnel Management has reduced its turnaround time on standardized employment tests and job applications from months to under three days per applicant. This is accomplished through an inexpensive system named AARS (Automated Applicant Referral System). The entire system was created for $50,000, using Hewlett Packard Network Hardware and 56kbps fax/telephone hookups. The AARS can be easily controlled by a single user, further reducing operating costs and applicant processing time. The current system focuses on science, engineering, and mathematics jobs offered by the government. Kenneth P. Mahew (director of the Staffing Service Center) states that eventually, 85% of all jobs will be fillable through the AARS system.

Azar, Kamal T and Enrique Vial. "Using a GIS in Combination with a Population Forecast Model to Visualize Distribution with Respect to Employment." 1992 URISA Proceedings vol.5:125 (ABSTRACT ONLY)

Study to visualize the impacts on population in the National Capital Region as a consequence of a possible major employment relocation. Projects the effects of relocating a government institution on an area's service employment and population distribution. Use for a GIS to produce graphical representations on possible relocations. Main benefit is speed in performing projections to provide planners and service providers with a decision support system.

Blakemore, Michael. "Management Issues In a Nationally Networked Geographic Information System." Challenge for the 1990's: Geographic Information Systems. Conference Proceedings. Ottawa, Canada: February 27-March 3, 1989. 797-808.

Explains the growth of the U.K's NOMIS (National Online Manpower Information System) since its inception in 1978. The system's storage capacity has increased from 200 Megabytes in 1985 to 1.3 Gigabytes in 1989. The need for increased storage space is directly linked to the addition of geographic regions or statistical features of the system. Detailed graphs display NOMIS's data compression, Account usage, and sample graphic output. Blakemore outlines the system's priority of mounting time-sensitive information online quickly. The system information and archival tapes are password-protected , and all user commands are logged for charging and security purposes. Data in NOMIS is compressed, and this ends up saving the users time. NOMIS can presently be searched by selected `best-fit' indices, which are carefully prepared and checked by the system, or `informal' techniques, which `may result in arbitrary or spurious results.' NOMIS's publicity plan involves setting up demonstration workstations and `letting traditional diffusion take its course.' Different user groups, and their use habits- from students to commercial interests- are outlined. The challenge of distributing graphics across modem connections is addressed. Solutions include co-operative software on the remote PC, and mailing (`posting') graphic output to the remote user after they log off. NOMIS is considering downsizing to PC-computers, and may be distributed on CD-ROM in the future.

Blakemore, Michael. The UK Nationally Networked GIS (NOMIS) for Monitoring and Strategic Planning of Local Labour Markets. Durham: Mountjoy Research Centre.

A brief history of NOMIS, its contents, and issues of administering a large online database. Interesting sections include a discussion of NOMIS' text-based, command line user interface, which has been retained even though menu-driven software has become popular. This interface decision saves NOMIS users money, and speeds transmission of their results across crowded networks and slow phone lines. User misconceptions about NOMIS are mentioned (i.e. people mistakenly believe that the entire 20 gigabyte database is installed on their laptop). Charges for use of NOMIS are broken down and explained. Options for statistical analysis and output formats are offered to the reader. The challenge of displaying complex graphical maps over telephone and slow network connections is addressed. A brief prediction of the future use and users of NOMIS is made. Good overview paper.

Bulkeley, William H. "Employers use Software to Track Resumes." The Wall Street Journal, June 23, 1992 B6(W).

Short three column story about the increasing popularity of OCR-scanned, computer-processed `resume databases.' By electronically screening (and saving in a file) resumes, a company can save money compared to traditional job-searching methods. Custom and off-the-shelf resume-database software is mentioned, including a built in feature of the widely available Lotus Notes. Software prices go up to $150,000. Anecdotal information is given-- if a resume clearly states "I don't program in Basic, C, or Pascal" could be interpreted by today's software as an applicant who is fluent in three computer programming languages. Online `Resume Banks' are also briefly mentioned, including their compliance with government standards and their pricing policies.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) data diskettes.

Data available in electronic format includes the following: Consumer Expenditure Survey (several different annual and biennial manifestations/iterations); Consumer Price Index; Employment Projections; Employment Cost Index; Employment, Hours and Earnings; Foreign Labor Force Statistics; Labor Force Statistics; Local Area Unemployment Data; Occupations Injury and Illness Incidence Rates; Producer Price Index; Productivity (U.S. Industry/Labor; Foreign; Major Sector Labor and Multifactor); U.S. Export and Import Data. While we did not purchase or examine any of this data, it seems that it might be useful to download into an LMIS to provide "instant data". Of course, currency is an issue, as is accuracy - articles I've read lead me to believe that most government labor data are estimates based on statistical samples. This is a common practice, and thought to be quite reliable, but there are of course critics of anything but a full report of all available sources.

Byrnes, Kevin F. and Don Gallagher. Building a Business Establishment File: A Multi-Application Tool for Regional Planning and Economic Development. Richmond, VA: Richmond Regional Services District Commission (RRPDC).

This paper details the experiences and adventures of the Richmond Regional Planning District Commission (RRPDC) staff in designing and marketing a regional business establishment database to facilitate regional economic development, planning for transportation and land use and applications for private market research. The RRPDC ended up turning to commercial business establishment databases because of the problems associated with the maintenance (or lack thereof) of small area employment estimates. The RRPDC was able to create a one of a kind relational database pertaining to the businesses in the area. Described within the paper are the various computer processing techniques used (geoprocessing, industrial classification coding), examples of applications of public and private databases and the plans for the future support (through public and private channels) for the database in order to maintain a picture of the local economy. The authors state how this type of database is needed to provide a better information base for making business marketing decisions. Also included within the paper are the objectives to be achieved by the implementation and use of this type of database.

Carruth, Gayden F. Position Paper: Common Information Base for Regional and Local Decision Making. Minneapolis: Planning and Research, Educational Cooperative Service Unit of the Metropolitan Twin Cities Area.

A paper presenting the methodology and procedures for database development required by the Minnesota State Legislature for educational cooperative service units. A general background about this mandate is given along with sources of data collection and uses of the data. The Educational Cooperative Service Unit (ECSU) of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area developed a database to collect and disseminate comparative data for local school district decision making and regional planning and research. The sources of information for the database included enrollment, finance, staffing, class size and facilities utilization. Data elements are described and four methods for reporting information are discussed. The paper also points out uses for the database in terms of the type of information collected.

Cohen, Malcom. On the Feasibility of a Labor Market Information System. Ann Arbor(University of Michigan-Wayne State University): Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations, June 1974. Report DLMA 71-24-70-02-1. ERIC fiche No. ED 094717

A report evaluating the need for a new labor market information system to make more effective use of current statistical and administrative data. Demonstration of various information technologies to accomplish these goals. Tested by Employment Security agencies in Colorado, Michigan and Wisconsin. Modest cost MICRO prototype system was able to meet the need for rapid tabulation of labor market information. Sought to automate procedures for forecasting unemployment, universe of need for manpower services, labor supply and demand. Centralization of computing was found to be a desirable and efficient construct. Finding that while administrative data has some uses, that some instances call for collection of new data. Main drawbacks: 19 years old, on fiche

Computerisation of Labor Market Information. Proceedings of ILO/ARPLA Inter-country Symposium on Labour Market Information Functions of Labour Administration. Denpasar (Bali), Indonesia: August, 1986.

This small paperback volume puts together the technical papers on the computerization of Labor Market Information (LMI) presented at the symposium in the Republic of Indonesia in August 1986. It is to be used as a handy reference to those responsible for planning and managing the shift to a new system as well as those interested in the more technical aspects of computer-based information systems. Two systems are given consideration: MACBETH in Ecuador and the Job Bank and the Job Seeker in Australia. The information concerning MACBETH presents the possibilities for using low-cost microcomputers for LMI data processing. The author of the paper demonstrates two approaches to computerization when cost is the major factor, 1) the conventional approach and 2) the incremental approach. Considerable attention is given to the system in Australia, including background information on the application of computers to the Commonwealth Employment Service (CES), the structure of CES, the implementation of the Job Bank system (equipment, objectives, operations, functions), and the use of the Job Seeker system (strategy behind it, implementation, objectives, operations design). The author of the paper includes advantages and disadvantages to these types of systems.

Craig, William J. "Empty Promises for Small Area Data: Monitoring Neighborhoods Using Operational Data." 1991 URISA Proceedings, Minneapolis: Center for Urban and Regional Affairs, University of Minnesota, 4:220 1991.

Main focus is on collecting and using data to monitor not only real estate data but also changes in an area's neighborhoods, population, and problems that can be dealt with quickly, appropriately and effectively. Attention is paid to census data, interim updates to it, and geocoding. The author laments government inertia and reluctance to use the full range of sources available for reasons of incompatible technologies, confidentiality and general foot-dragging. Conditions/situations in the Minneapolis area are documented, including barriers to the use of information systems. Recommendations are made to improve the amount and value of small-area data, including a call for more flexible systems and the ability to generate reports "to order".

De la Vina, Linda Y. and John Romanek. San Antonio Labor Market Information System: Design, Development, and Implementation. San Antonio: University of Texas at San Antonio, Institute for Studies in Business.

Details the design and implementation of the San Antonio Labor Market Information System (SALMIS) as the first (and only?) fully automated microcomputer-based labor market information system (LMIS) in the United States. It is designed to serves as both a database for current labor market information as well as a analyzing and forecasting labor supply and demand trends in the San Antonio Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). SALMIS enjoys the distinction of actually having documentation regarding its design and implementation available in the form of this paper, and is indeed an ambitious undertaking which offers significant advantages for the planning of new businesses and of labor market analyses.

Dunphy, Robert T. "Regional Employment Census: Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments." Washington, DC: Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, 1984 242.

Deals with the comparability of data from one Council of Governments (COG) region to another. Inter-jurisdictional comparison of employment characteristics and trends. Measurement of changes in urban activity for small areas in order to effectively collect employment data by transportation zones.

Gillespie, Andrew and David Owen. NOMIS: The NOMIS Local Labour Market Information System. Newcastle: Centre for Urban and Regional Development Studies, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

This article is a brief description of NOMIS (the National On Line Manpower Information System), a computerized data retrieval, analysis and presentation system for local labor market information. It describes the system's database as:

1) provided for by local area employment information from the Census of Employment (CE), compiled annually and placed into 181 industries (using SIC codes);

2) a collection of data series - employment, unemployment, registered vacancy time-series data sets;

3) providing social and demographic information.

The design and capabilities of the system are explained as:

1) designed for interactive use by RMIU (Regional Manpower Intelligence Units);

2) one that uses commands in the form of a keyword and a request;

3) a system that is user-friendly;

4) one that provides a "help" feature and self-explanatory error messages;

5) a system that has the intentions of output for the local labor areas.

The paper also points out future developments for use of the NOMIS system.

Gooch, Greg T. The Geographic Information Center- An Organizational Model for Servicing Multi-Agency GIS. San Bernardino, California: County of San Bernadino. ABSTRACT ONLY

A report detailing San Bernardino County's implementation of a centralized Geographic Information Center (GIC), centered around their GIS to improve the coordination of GIS applications and overall database development. The GIC is central to a strategy to support a multi-agency GIS.

Guptill, Stephen C. A Process For Evaluating Geographic Information Systems. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey.

This a brief synopsis of a larger report by the same title put out by the Technology Exchange Working Group (TEWG) for those considering implementing a Geographic Information System (GIS). It provides a working definition of a GIS and states the objectives of the report which are 1) to provide an overview of GIS technology and a general picture of the entire process of evaluating a GIS and 2) to provide advice and guidelines to those who are involved with the technical issues of implementing or procuring GIS's. It explains why GIS's are useful in the federal environment, details five basic objectives for the acquisition and operation of information systems, explains that the successful development of a GIS is dependent upon well-defined user requirements and asks the question of which GIS should be incorporated. This synopsis also discusses the role of standards and guidelines in choosing and implementing a GIS. The larger report provides general guidance for understanding GIS technology.

Hadduck, Charles G An Employment Application Information System. Portland, Oregon: Portland Public Schools.

This paper describes the on-line system (called The Employment Applications Information System) which allows the Personnel Department to input pertinent data from all employment applications into the computer. It was developed by the Portland Public schools as a means to assure that all qualified applicants were considered for each job opening. Information from applicants is inputted by the Personnel Department and inquiries can then be made against the database via display terminals. The system consists of a series of six programs which update the database, select report information and print the selected information. The database is an indexed random file consisting of two records types. The paper also details the type of data that can be inputted into the system and the type of output the system produces. A example of how to use the system is given.

Herbst, Kris. "Job Hunting? Consider Searching Online." Computerworld October 29,1990 137.

The changing economy is forcing Employment Services to evolve into nationwide computerized databases. Corporate `headhunters' who charge as much as 33% of an employee's first year salary, and the limitations of a geographically specific employment agency are no longer acceptable. Online Job databases are more efficient for job seeker and employers alike. The employer can consider more applicants for each job, and each applicant in the system will be considered for many jobs by submitting just one resume. The Career Placement Registry (CPR), available as file 162 on DIALOG, is the system of focus in this article.

Jobs in the Private Sector: Use of Labor Market Information. U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration Division of Labor Market Information. 1980 U.S. GPO.

A useful overview of information available on labor markets in the U.S. Provides good descriptions of labor market statistics and occupational coding systems. Much of the directory information (agencies/contacts) is outdated, but the background information is still of value.

Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Association. 1989- Holdings at UC Irvine.

An interesting, slick journal that concentrates on current developments in Urban and Regional Information Systems. Again, the current trend seems to be toward GISs. Limited availability in southern California (UCI).

Kindelberger, Charles P. "Hypermedia for State and Local Government." URISA Journal of the Urban and Regional Information System Association. 2(Fall, 1990):2 52.

Report on a very interesting system installed in St. Louis that stores and retrieves information in several different formats - text, numbers, sounds and images. Allows planners to see specific sites and integrate map, picture, and database information when evaluating areas of the city. Both attractive and very practical.

Klosterman, Richard E. and Richard K. Brail. "Spreadsheet Models for Urban and Regional Analysis." 1991 URISA Proceedings Akron, Ohio and New Brunswick, NJ 5:25. ABSTRACT ONLY.

Description of spreadsheet models used for the following applications: demographic analysis; economic analysis; environmental analysis; management and decision-making; financial analysis and fiscal impacts; advanced applications. Models have consistent, menu-driven interfaces and promote data transferability.

Kugelmass, Sharon P. "Citynet: New York City's Solution to the Inter-Operability Needs of City Agencies." 1991 URISA Proceedings Charlotte, NC: University of North Carolina. 5:58 ABSTRACT ONLY.

Description of the design and implementation (including technical and political problems) of the Citynet system in New York to improve inter-agency data and voice communications through a turnkey telecommunications network. Prior to implementation of Citynet, all agencies were on 20 separate voice and data systems. The current system better meets the city's agency "interoperability" needs. Does not talk specifically about LMIS or GIS, but is of more than peripheral interest nonetheless.

Lawson, Rodger S. Perspectives on the Development of a Comprehensive Labor Market Information System for Michigan. Michigan Department of Education, Vocational Education and Career Development Service and for the State Office of Manpower Planning: April, 1973. ERIC fiche No. ED 076224

Report recommending the development of a comprehensive labor market information system as the basis for planning educational curricula and delivering other manpower or human resources development services. Includes a broad conceptual definition of and recommendations for such a system, proposes solutions to problem unmet needs. System's potential users include: employers, job seekers, state and local governments planning and evaluating programs, counselors, job developers. Describes components of such a comprehensive system. Provides listing of current (1973) sources of labor market information at local, state and national levels. Main drawbacks: 20 years old, on fiche

Lemkow, Daniel. "The Need for GIS Data Servers," 1991 URISA Proceedings. Nanaimo, British Columbia: Digital Resource Systems, Inc., 5:59. ABSTRACT ONLY

Discusses the use of new technology GIS servers to address the problem of seamless integration of GIS and database data. These systems require users to go through the GIS server in order to access data. The server sends only the data needed by a specific client. Clients can be running either a GIS application from the same vendor, or through a published messaging protocol for non-GIS users. Allows the support of multiple platforms from the same, central database. Obviously relevant to the integration of LMIS and GIS systems.

McMaster, Lorne "Neighbourhood Fact Sheet Licensing Agreement." 1991 URISA Proceedings Edmonton, AB: City of Edmonton, 5:125 1991 ABSTRACT ONLY.

Talks about the licensing and philosophical underpinnings of access to fact sheets containing information on each of the city's 190 residential neighborhoods. What is of most interest to us is the fact sheets themselves, which contain statistical and graphic profiles of each neighborhood properties, structures, businesses, dwelling stock and residents. These fact sheets are produced using the city's geographic information management systems.

Mireles-Cordova, Ricardo. Spatial Analysis of Employment and Demographic Trends in a polycentric Metropolitan Area: Latinos and Losangelesization. MIT.

Use of GISs to allow detailed inter metropolitan analysis of U.S. census information to capture the dynamic of polycentric metropolitan areas. This paper focuses on two hypotheses: spatial mismatch and service sector expansion model. Spatial mismatch asserts that uneven employment growth will not benefit those currently living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Service sector expansion hypothesis states that the growth of a region can be attributed in part to the existence of exploitable low skill labor. The study uses a GIS to identify patterns of Latino residence within the sub-regional economic growth nodes by geographically relating various machine readable databases (economic sector, demographic composition, housing characteristics and occupational types).

Monthly Labor Review (UCLA call number HD 8051 M76).

U.S. Government serial publication that has articles about the labor market and trends in the economy and their effect on employment. Also contains a monthly summary of labor statistics and current awareness of labor agreements and industrial relations. Useful as a source of general information about the labor market.

Probst, George, and Dwight Meredith. Establishing the Basis for a Multi-Purpose Local Labor Market Information System: Assessment of User Need and Data Availability. Raleigh, North Carolina: State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Department of Administration, January 1979. Project No. 498-AH-70-211, Grant No. G00-77-02-137. ERIC fiche No. ED 178717.

Report of a study on need and availability of local labor market information across five state agencies (vocational education, community colleges, CETA programs (Comprehensive Employment And Training Act), vocational rehabilitation, employment security (both state and local levels) as made available by technology created for this project. Prioritization of data categories by their importance to the various agencies. Categories covered supply and demand aspects of labor market information including employment patterns, turnover, vacancies, characteristics of employed, unemployed and discouraged workers, education and training program characteristics and others. Study served as catalyst to initiate use/implementation of a multi-purpose occupational information system to serve the planning needs of public and private administrators as well as individual citizens' career decision needs. Main drawbacks: 14 years old, on fiche.

Robbins, Robert C., and George C. Young. "Project Interact: Microcomputer Software for Vocational Rehabilitation Facilities." Technology for Disabled Persons: Conference Papers. Chicago: University of Wisconsin-Stout, 1984.

Talks about the design of a software application for monitoring employee performance in a specific setting- the `vocational rehabilitation center.' Not useful to us.

Savage, Jean F. "The Future of Relational Database Technology and What it Means to GIS." 1991 URISA Proceedings. Southbury, Connecticut: IBM, 5:46. ABSTRACT ONLY.

Integration of database information to other databases and applications. Data distribution and access issues. The integration of GIS and non-GIS data to produce a more powerful and flexible information resource. Looks very promising - would be worth contacting her to obtain a copy of the report, if it is not proprietary to IBM.

Skiles, James M. Tools and Techniques Used in Scan Conversion of Geographic and Facilities Data. San Diego: AUDRE, Inc.

A paper which presents the problem of the conversion of hard copy data sources into structured digital databases in the implementation of Geographic Information Systems (GIS's). This obstacle must be overcome in order for the implementations of such systems. A general conversion flow model and description of the tools necessary to implement the model are presented. General background of the scanning process is given along with a detailed description of conversion technology. A graphic representation of the conversion flow model based upon tools that currently exist illustrates the different levels of data structure available at certain stages of the process. This conversion flow method is modeled in a manner similar to the human interpretive process which facilitates the understanding of tools of the process. Discusses the types of data that are the best candidates for the successful conversion from scan to a GIS database.

Smith, Chris, ed. Technology for Disabled Persons: Conference Papers. "A Placement and Management Information System for Local Placement Programs." by Frederick E. Menz and Diane Gleiter. Menononie, Wisconsin: Stout Vocational Rehabilitation Institute, 1984.

In Short: A paper on the development of a PMIS[24] for the differently abled. There are three main goals of this PMIS:

1. Show a matchmaker (job-placer) up to date employment openings.

2. Show a matchmaker an up to date pool of differently-abled persons seeking employment.

3. Generate reports that evaluate the success of the system.

Technically, this system is front-end software written for the IBM XT or higher, and depends upon (is a front end to?) Version 2.0 or higher of the DBASE database software.

System Features:

1. Menu Driven, with the option to quit on every branch.

2. Modular Design: each applicant, job, and employer is recorded in a separate file. This increases speed and allows out dated files to be deleted easily.

3. Full-screen, fill in the blanks data entry//editing, with checks on checkable data (i.e. date in form xx-xx-(# between 00 and 99), salary in form $XX,XXX where X is an integer, etc.)

4. Search Records- build queries based on any field(s). Advanced DBASE Users can use additional commands.

5. Retains archival records/system logs to aid in evaluation of the system and its users.

6. Report- Generation: the system can generate reports that tell us characteristics of job seekers, job opportunities, outcome of job searches, etc. Standard reports that can be displayed on screen, printer, or in computer file.

Target Users of PMIS System: Employment placement programs and services, vocational rehabilitation counselors,

Sugarman, Marged S. A Systematized Approach to Using Job seeker Information as a Means of Maintaining a Localized Job Search Information System. San Francisco: State of California Employment Development Department, Northern California Employment Data and Research Section, July 1974.

A final report on the Localized Job Search Information System which was developed to increase job entry of Employment Service (ES) applicants. The system was designed so that job seekers were the principle source of information required to keep the data current. The system was also designed for the purposes of increasing the success of job seekers finding jobs. The report includes summaries of the objectives and methodology of the project, a summary of the findings, study background (techniques of job search, successful job search techniques) and the design of a localized job search information system. The report describes the techniques used in the selection of participants in the study, the sample size, area to be studied, employers to be interviewed and the data collection process. The end of the report includes all of the forms, records, letters, postcards, handouts and questionnaires used to conduct the study. Recommendations for an experimental localized job search information-sharing system covering a multi-office metropolitan area being set up and operated on a demonstration basis are included.

Urban Informal sector information needs and methods. International Labor Office: World Employment Programme. 1989.

Labor market information sources, underground economies, manpower utilization, and employment in developing countries.

URISA proceedings. Urban and Regional Information Association (URISA) 1974, 1989-91 Specific titles identified elsewhere.

Conference proceedings from URISA. Discuss a wide range of topics concerning urban information systems, especially new and emerging technologies. Earlier proceedings have more information on LMISs', later conferences show a marked shift toward GISs as centralized systems that can be adapted to a wider variety of. A very good source, but grievously hard to get (UCLA had only 1974, and those at SRLF), UCI had 1991 and 1992 only, Berkeley was the big repository for them, but time constraints did not allow us to obtain them by ILL). Another frustrating thing was the publication of all abstracts of papers accepted for presentation at the conference, of which only a select few were printed in the proceedings, duplicating the ERIC fiche experience of relevant but unavailable documents.

Van Sambeek, Jack, et al. "Automated Employment System in the City of San Jose (CA)." in State and Local Systems: the State of the Art.

A word-processing system to track civil service examination information. This sounds like the type of independent system developed by New York city that they were seeking to replace with an integrated system (Citynet) listed elsewhere. Perhaps useful as an example of what not to do.

Willis, Rod. "Recruitment: Playing the Database Game." Personnel, May, 1990 25-29.

Willis reviews several employment databases from the job-seeker's point of view. He considers confidentiality of job listings to be a top consideration in evaluating a system. Job Recruitment databases are divided into five categories: Executive Search Firms, University Alumni Groups, Employment Agencies, Public Job Banks, and Corporate Job Banks. Limitations mentioned include lack of human decision making and lack of participation in a non-traditional form of job-seeking. In the explanation of Employment Agency Databases, Willis talks about Network databases, in which two or more such LMIS's are linked together to allow searching across multiple geographic areas, similar to the Multiple Listing Service in Real Estate (p.28). Criteria for choosing a database to submit your resume to are given, and Willis concludes that job databases can be very effective when used by knowledgeable Human Resource managers.

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